Here in Japan, Americans with a valid US license can go through a license transfer process to acquire a Japanese drivers license. The process takes 2 days. One day for registering and taking a written test and one day for taking a behind-the-wheel test. See more information at Japanese Driver's License and Driving Test Tips.
Today I finished day 1.
The problem I had this morning was that all of the addresses for the places in Tokyo were only in English. This is fine, but there are not many English maps of Japan. Searching google maps for these addresses doesn't return much. So here it is, the Japanese translations and maps for the places one in Tokyo needs to go:
JAF Headquarters Tokyo
Tokyo 105-8562 2-2-17 Shiba Minato-ku Tokyo
Samezu Driver's License Center
1-12-5, Higashi-Oi, Shinagawa-ku
Fuchu Driver's License Center
3-1-1, Tama-cho, Fuchu-shi